Floor is the surface of a room on which one stands. Flooring, on the other hand is the general term for a permanent covering of a floor. The purpose of flooring is to provide a horizontal, clean surface to support the occupants of a building, the furniture and equipment. Therefore the flooring must  be strong enough to bear the super imposed loads. 

The choice of material for floor covering is affected by factors such as cost, endurance, noise insulation, comfort and cleaning effort. There are three broad categories for flooring material options, namely Natural, Man-made and Resilient and have their own advantages and disadvantages. 

As an Architect practising in Bangalore, India, I have given my personal rating for each floor type, so that it gives you a rough idea of the suitability of a particular flooring to your requirement. Also it helps you compare the different types of flooring: 

To know more about the different material options with my rating, read on:

For a very detailed description and analysis of the different flooring options in the market today, you can visit my site architectureideas.info, specifically the posts on flooring:


The most important structural components of a building construction are the columns-beams-slabs made of concrete and the walls which are made of bricks and plaster. The main ingredients in concrete, mortar and plaster are cement, sand, stone chips, water, steel reinforcement etc. As an Architect, I have been dealing with these materials for the past 20 years. And in any site, I always look out for the quality of these materials as that can impact the overall construction considerably.

People constructing houses can never be sure of the quality of the materials that the contractor brings to site. To help you, I shall describe some of the features you need to look out for, that indicate good quality building materials.


Usage of Cement in Buildings:

Cement is the binder that holds concrete and mortars together and hence it plays the most critical role in giving strength and durability to your home. It is used to make concrete for slabs, foundations, beams, columns, lintels, chhajja (sunshades), and mortar for brickwork, plastering, flooring and other such work.

Types of Cement used in house construction:

Cements used for domestic building such as your home are basically of three types:
  • Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC): A combination of clinker and gypsum.
  • Portland Slag Cement (PSC): A combination of good quality blast furnace slag (from the iron and steel industry) with clinker (which makes OPC) and gypsum.
  • Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC): A combination of fly-ash (from thermal power plants) with clinker and gypsum.
Ideal cement for house construction:
The best cement for house construction is blended cement like PSC and PPC. But please note that good quality blended cements like PSC and PPC will take more time to set. However the final strength after 28 days will be much more.

Features of good quality cement:

  • Reduced water requirement.
  • Improved workability .
  • Less permeable to moisture.
  • Improved resistance to acids and chlorides.
  • Reduced heat of hydration.
  • Easier to finish.
  • Reduced shrinkage.
  • Reduced leaching problems because it is low on free lime.
The colour of cement has no relation to the strength characteristics. There is a wrong impression that darker color cement gives better strength. In fact, darker color cement causes the workers to add more sand than allowed in cement-sand mortar for plastering, which can then cause problems.

Selecting the right cement for your house:

It is very important that you use only a reputed brand of cement. Good brands of cement may cost 2 to 5% more but offer quality, consistency and reliability as well as 10 to 20% greater strength characteristics. Cement accounts for a mere 12 to 18% of the total expenditure on your home. So, using cheaper cement gives you little overall savings but a greater risk to the strength of your building!

The right way of using cement in construction:

Cement must be added to the concrete and mortar in a precise, consistent manner. Too little or too much cement in concrete and improper water-cement ratios cause lower strengths, shorter design life and lower durability. Never try to save on cement use by diluting the concrete mix. Remember, that by using 30 to 40 bags less of cement, you would save no more than Rs 3000 to Rs 4000.


Usage of sand in house construction:

Along with cement, sand is a very important ingredient in mortars and concrete. Therefore the proper selection of sand is critical in the durability and performance of  the concrete/mortar mixture.

Ideal Sand for house construction:

River sand is the best for construction. However due to its scarcity and exorbitant price, filter sand and manufactured sand are also used nowadays. The price of sand includes three or four components - base cost, transportation, handling and number of intermediaries. Therefore procuring sand in bulk directly from the source will be cheaper than the neighbourhood dealer, except when you need smaller quantities.

Features of good quality sand:

  • Must be clear, angular and hard.
  • Must be free from clay, mica and soft, flaky material
  • Should be graded, which means it should be a mix of fine, medium and coarse sand
  • Must be free from contaminants like sea salt.
  • Moisture (water) content must be consistent and should not exceed 7%. When mixing concrete the moisture content must be taken into consideration.

Selecting the right sand for house construction:

Even though good sand is very difficult to procure and the price is very high, it is better to use good sand rather than filter sand. But if the cost is a big factor, filter sand is available at a cheaper rate. It is sand mixed with dust/soil. Filter sand can be made better by washing off all the dust particles with water. You could also vary the type of sand that you use based on the type of work. For example, for rcc slabs, rough sand can be used whereas fine sand can be used for plastering. A simple way of checking the quality of the sand -  It should not be sticky when you hold it in your hand.


Manufactured sand: also called M-sand is being promoted by the government as a cheaper alternative to natural sand because of the scarcity of good quality natural sand. Experts vouch that manufactured sand is not only a viable alternative to natural sand, but superior in many ways. Mortars and concrete using M-sand as fine aggregate are superior when compared to those using natural sand. The ready-mix concrete manufacturers are already using manufactured sand.

Advantages of manufactured sand:

  • The appropriate quality of rock suitable for construction can be used for manufactured sand;
  • There is no clay content in M-sand;
  • M-sand is scientifically graded to comply BIS specifications;
  • Customizing the different grades depending upon the need of construction ensures consistent quality throughout the construction cycle.
  • M-sand is half the price of natural sand. 


Usage of aggregates in concrete:

Technically, known as coarse aggregates, stone chips are a major ingredient of concrete, giving it strength and solidity. The quality of concrete depends very much on the characteristics of aggregates used.

Features of good quality aggregates:

  • Stone chips should be angular or round, not flat or flaky.
  • They should not contain marks or layers of any other colour.
  • They should be free from mud and other impurities, which are harmful for concreting. It is advisable to wash the stone chips before mixing to make it free from dust, dirt and mud.
  • They should be well-graded, which means these should contain sizes from 5mm to 20mm in proper proportion, so that voids are minimal.

Selecting the right aggregates for house construction:

Aggregates should be well-graded and should contain sizes from 5mm to 20mm  in proper proportion, so that voids are minimal. This will make a strong and durable concrete. At the same time, this will save on cement. So, always insist on graded aggregates and not 'pure' aggregates which result in larger voids within the concrete and more cement consumption. One should get aggregates from the source to get the best price.


Usage of reinforcing steel in concrete:

Reinforcing steel contributes to the tensile strength of concrete. Concrete has low tensile, but high compressive strength. The tensile deficiency is compensated by reinforcing the concrete mass through insertion of plain or twisted mild steel bars.

Features of good quality steel:

  • Steel bars/rods should be reasonably clean and free of rust.
  • Bars that cannot be easily bent manually or mechanically should be rejected.
  • Optimum length bars must be chosen to reduce wastage in cutting.
  • To avoid laps, shorter bars must not be accepted.
  • Welded lengths of bars should not be accepted.

Selecting the right steel for your house construction:

Both branded and unbranded bars are available. It is wise to buy good brands like SAIL. During construction, ensure that size and the type of steel reinforcement used is exactly as per the engineering design specifications.


Tips in using water:

  • You must use only potable water in quality concrete production.
  • Brackish or salty water must never be used.
  • Contaminated water will produce concrete and mortars with lower durability, erratic set characteristics and inconsistent colour.

Usage of Bricks in house construction:

For most of the buildings two types of Bricks are used:
  • Red soil bricks - the size is 9"x4.5"x3". They may be wire-cut or table moulded
  • Cement blocks - the sizes vary. They are of two types: Hollow blocks or solid blocks (Hollow blocks are preferable but nowadays they are not easily available)
  • Fly ash bricks - are used as an alternative to the regular bricks or cement blocks as they are lighter in weight.
  • With Hollow and solid cement bricks, you can complete wall construction faster than normal red bricks.

Features of good bricks for construction:

  • They should be show uniform texture and colour.
  • When broken, they must not leave lumps and grit.
  • Ensure that bricks are not made from saline clay.
  • Look for proper and uniform burning.

Categories of bricks used in house construction:

Features of 1st Class Bricks:

  • Perfect in size/shape.
  • Red to cherry-red in colour
  • Do not break when dropped from waist height
  • Do not absorb more than 15 to 17% of their own weight if kept submerged for 1 hour under water
  • Suitable for precision work such as exposed

Features of 2nd Class Bricks:

  • Not so uniform as 1st class bricks in shape/size/quality of burning.
  • Do not absorb more than 25% water of own weight if kept submerged under water for 1 hour.
  • Good for brickwork wherever subsequent plastering is to be done.

Features of 3rd Class Bricks:

  • Much inferior to 2nd class bricks in terms of shape/size and burning.
  • Absolutely out of size and shape, overburnt, fused with more bricks, with a honeycomb texture.

Features of Jhama/Overburnt Bricks:

  • Dark red to black in colour.
  • These bricks are unsuitable for any kind of brickwork, and are only used in broken pieces for consolidation of foundation soil and sub base of floors brickwork.

Selecting bricks for house construction:

Bricks may be purchased directly from the brick fields located close to your area to get it at a lower cost. Keep samples for conformity to ordered quality.

To know more about construction of a house and the stages involved got to:


After the erection of the foundation, the next stage in the construction of the House can be either of the following two options. The superstructure (the walls) can be erected in case of a load bearing structure or the columns can be raised in the column-beam structure. Simultaneously, the staircase can be built. The stairs is useful as it can serve as the pathway to the upper floors for carrying  building materials. A staircase is a utility construction, designed to bridge a vertical distance, for example between two floors. You can read more about Staircases on my site on Architecture.


Earlier, the staircase was just a utility feature in a house, but now it is gaining importance as a central, focal point in interiors. You can opt for Curved, cantilevered, spiral or suspended, in steel, glass, timber, copper or aluminum – infinite possibilities have been opened up by clever design and engineering. You can read more about the different types of staircases here.


Some of the different shapes of staircases are Straight,  Stairs with landingsCurvedArchedSpiralCircular. When choosing the shape of the staircase, the following aspects should be taken into account:  Space available, Intensity of usage, Form (Shape) preferred,  Convenience and safety.


Since the staircase is used all the time to access other floors, the following points must be taken into consideration in the design of the staircase, to ensure a comfortable climb.

Split staircases: It is always preferable to have a ‘Split staircase’ also known as a ‘staircase with a landing’ as it forces the climber to rest, pause for a few seconds, thus making the climb more comfortable. A split stairway also uses up minimal floor space. There are many different types of staircases-with-landings such as the Straight staircase with landing, L-shaped, double L-shaped and U-shaped staircases.You can read about it in my post Stairs with landings.

Staircase width: The width of each flight of the staircase should be 3' or 3'6".  If space restricts, then you can compromise with a 2'6" wide flight.

Tread-To-Riser ratio:  Usually stairs have 10" or 11" treads (the horizontal step on which you place your feet) and 6" or 7" risers (the vertical height between treads). It is important to make sure the total of the tread and riser should add up to 17 inches. This means that as the tread gets shorter, the riser should get steeper for the stair to feel comfortable as you climb. There are limits, of course. A riser of more than 8¼ inches is going to be too steep for many people.
Consistent treads and risers:  If you stumble or trip on a staircase, it is probably due to an odd tread or riser that is not the same size as the others. Our bodies get into a rhythm when climbing or descending, and even half an inch of difference can throw us off. So while planning a staircase, keep in mind the extra thickness of the flooring (that will be added later), while calculating the riser and tread dimensions.

Tread overhang: A tread overhang will keep heels from scuffing risers on the way down and help you find your footing on the way up.

Space between treads:  Sometimes, the riser is omitted entirely – it’s just empty space instead of a board. In such a stair, the stringer – supporting structure of the stair is visible. For safety, a stair that doesn’t have a riser should have a thicker tread and lesser space between treads.

Ceiling Height: On the way up, people will bump their heads if the ceiling is too low. On the way down, it’s hard to judge ceiling height, so people will duck if it looks too close. To prevent this, as much ceiling height as possible should be given. The distance from the highest tread below a ceiling should be at least 80 inches, or 6 feet 8 inches.

Lighting: While planning the staircase, it is worthwhile to think of the lighting points, even though the lighting design for the house is given later, at the time of casting the roof slab. The lighting  should be planned in such a way that the stair flights are visible. If you want lights along the length of the stairs then it should be embedded along with the stairs during its construction. 


Staircase drawings: The Contractor has to follow the staircase drawing given by the architect along with the structural staircase details prepared by the structural designer. The construction of the staircase depends on the design and materials used. 

Slight slope of tread: The treads should very slightly slope towards the front for comfort in climbing and to make sure that the rainwater in open staircases does not stagnate and will flow out.

Grooves in treads: It is advisable to have 2 or 3 groove marks along the length of the tread towards the outer edge, to give proper grip to the climber. Grooves can be cut in the flooring material used to cover the steps - whether it is Kadappa or Granite.

To know more about construction of a house and the different stages involved, go to:

If you want to plan your staircase using Vastu Shastra principles, then you can read about it on my post:  Vastu Shastra Guidelines for Staircases 

If you prefer Feng Shui principles, then read about it on my post: Feng Shui Rules for Staircases

If you want to understand the scientific reasoning behind the Vastu Shastra principles that dictate the design of staircases, then visit my site at: Vastu Shastra for Staircases


After constructing the sump, the next step is digging/excavating for the foundation of the building. This is an important stage as  the dimensions of the foundation have to be perfectly right because otherwise, the future spaces will be affected. The foundation depth depends on the soil quality and the design of the foundation is decided by the site conditions. The excavation drawing and foundation details are prepared by the structural designer and approved by the Architect.


Marking: The Contractor has to follow the excavation drawing prepared by the structural designer and approved by the Architect. The excavation plan is marked at site and the dimensions are cross-checked by the Architect. It is advisable that you also check the dimensions as any mistake can be brought to the Architect's and Contractor's notice so that it can be rectified before it is late.


Excavation: Once the marking has been approved, the excavation can begin.

Depth of excavation: The excavation depth depends on the soil condition. Digging is done till hard soil is reached. For a fair idea, you can check with the neighbouring buildings, the depth of their excavations.

Filled up soil:  If your site/Layout is formed on lakes or low-lying areas, it may have a lot of filled up soil. In such areas excavation must be done till firm ground is reached. Usually the depth of the foundation will be more and consequently the cost of the foundation will be very high. But do not compromise. Make sure the building is resting on solid ground even if it means you have to go 15 feet down, because otherwise it will affect the stability and strength of the house.

Excavation trenches/pits:  The excavation details depends on the construction method that you have decided to adopt, the load-bearing-wall system or the column-beam-frame structure system. If it is a load bearing system, then trenches along the walls of the house have to be excavated. If it is a column-beam structure, then footings for columns have to be excavated. In either case, the architect approved, structural engineer's foundation drawings and details must be followed.

Anti-termite treatment:  Before laying the foundation, make sure that the trenches and excavated areas have been given the anti-termite treatment by the Contractor. This will ensure protection against termites and other pests from underground, in the future


Once the excavations are done, the next step is to build the foundation.
Load bearing structure foundation: A bed of concrete (PCC) is laid at the base of the trenches  and the foundation masonry is built using size-stones in accordance with the foundation details provided by the structural designer.

Column-beam frame structure system: In this case,  a mat of steel bars tied together according to the structural engineer's specifications is placed at the bottom of the footing pit. The steel bars for the column are also tied in place with the help of binding wire. Column boxes are erected around it for pouring concrete.

Pouring concrete: After the architect and structural engineer have approved the steel details and the quality of work, the concrete can be poured. Concrete can be prepared at site or the contractor may opt  for ready mix concrete (RMC) if there are very large footings and large requirement of concrete.
Plinth Beam: After the concrete columns have been raised to the Plinth beam level, the plinth beam is erected for the walls of the house to rest on.


Curing is very important during the construction period. If not done properly, cracks can appear and even the strength and life of the building components can be affected. Curing ensures that certain chemical reactions take place which strengthen the structure.

Chemical reaction during curing: There are two types of chemical reactions, one that releases heat during the process (Exothermic) and another that absorbs heat (Endothermic). The mixing of cement with water is an exothermic reaction due to the presence of lime stone. Because of this heat generation, the water in the mortar or concrete mix evaporates even before the compound gains strength. But for the structure to gain maximum strength, chemical reactions in a cement compound must go on and this can happen only in the presence of water and at an ambient temperature. Hence there is a need to preserve the water content and the ambient temperature and this is achieved by regular curing.
Starting the Curing process: Curing should start from the very next day after the concrete has been poured. Initially more water will be absorbed by the concrete elements, but after a week, the water required will be much less. If there is water runoff when water is poured on a new construction, curing should be stopped. The hotter the outside temperatures more amount of curing is required.

Curing schedule: Curing should be done at least twice a day though three times is better. Ensure that your Contractor entrusts this job on one person, so that it is not forgotten.

Curing of Columns: For columns, the preferred method is to wrap the pillar with wet gunny bags and then wetting them regularly. This is done because, while pouring water, the column does not absorb much water as it flows away. So to ensure that the column gets cured evenly, the gunny bag method is used. Sometimes a plastic bottle or polythene bag with a small hole is placed on the column so that the water drips steadily and the gunny bags are wet all the time.


Auspicious day: The Excavation work for the foundation of the Building should start on an auspicious day, from the North-East corner of the building and end in the South-West corner. Therefore, the direction of excavation should be from N-E to S-E, then S-E to S-W corner. Simultaneously, the excavation should be from N-E to N-W, then N-W to S-W corner. 

Shilaanyaasa: It is the foundation laying ceremony. After the excavation for the foundation has been completed, the stone which is consecrated at the time of the Vastu Pooja, is laid first in the South-West corner of the excavated trenches.

Construction work: The construction work like laying of the bed concrete, stone foundation or column footing, etc. should be started from the South-West corner to the North-East corner.

Filling: The filling of earth within the foundation should be done from the South-West to the North-East for the same reason as above.

For the scientific explanation of the Vastu Shastra principles visit Vastu Guidelines Foundation 

After the excavation and the building of the foundation, the next step in House Construction is to erect the walls and simultaneously build the Staircase. Read about it here:

To know more about the different stages involved in the construction of a house, go to:


After constructing the sump, the next step is to start the excavation for the foundation. Before starting the foundation of your house, you must have decided the construction system that you want to adopt.
There are two methods of constructing houses, the load-bearing-wall system and the column-beam-frame structure system. Both these systems have been explained here with advantages and disadvantages:

Load bearing wall structure: is one of the earliest forms of construction. Raising the house, wall over wall and floor over floor, has been the most common method all over the world. In this system, the load is supported and transferred to the foundation through the masonry walls and there are no concrete structural elements, like columns or beams to support the load. Therefore, the walls must be strong enough for the purpose and are usually 9 inches or more in thickness.
Frame structure: also known as column-beam structure has a combination of beams and columns to  support and transfer the load. The roof load rests on the beams, the beams transfer the  load to the columns, which in turn transfer the load to the foundation. In this system, the masonry walls are not subjected to any load and so, the interior layout is flexible and can be changed any time. The walls can be thinner too, thus increasing the carpet area. Frame structures are preferable to load bearing wall structure in the construction of large and multi-storey buildings. 

Both the systems have their respective advantages and drawbacks, hence require a judicious approach in deciding which system to go for. A simple criterion in making a decision is to consider the location of the site. A frame structure is inevitable where the soil is very loose, ground is water logged, land is earthquake prone, masonry materials are difficult to get and light weight construction is desired. 

But nowadays, irrespective of the site context we see most constructions including houses being done with columns and beams. Even though the construction costs have gone up, people want frame structures because they think, they are safer and stronger. But this is not entirely true. Some of the myths on this matter have been busted here.

Earthquake resistant: Most people think that having many columns is a surefire bet against earthquakes. For structural stability against earthquakes, column-beams are not enough, other elements such as corner stiffeners, diagonal bracing and horizontal ties must be incorporated after designing the structure. If such issues are not adequately addressed, a framed building is bound to crack or collapse as much as a walled building would in the event of a strong earthquake. 

Cost reduction due to thinner walls: The additional costs of the concrete components nullify the masonry savings. Moreover thin walls allow sound and water seepage and hence need to be adequately water-proofed which adds to the cost. Additionally, walls and beams in framed buildings require perfect alignment and proper junction between the different materials, which means skilled work and hence more cost.

Speed of Construction: The speed of construction is a factor in multi-storey buildings but is inconsequential for houses, where time saved by erecting columns is negligible, considering the time consumed in finishing the entire house. 

Can add more floors: Most houses do not exceed 3 floors and will not get permisssion for more floors. A three storey building can be built using load-bearing walls. But people erraneously believe or are made to believe by professionals and market forces that a column-beam structure is necessary for stability in buildings with more than one floor.
The truth of the matter is that RCC frames cost money and consume resources, energy and are not eco-friendly in comparison to masonry walls. So you must take a decision based on the 'ground-reality' before  the start of the construction.

Once you have decided the type of construction method that you want to adopt, then the next step is to build the foundation. The details are explained here:
To know more about the different stages involved in the construction of a house, go to:


As part of your House Construction, two water tanks are to be constructed: the Underground Water tank and the Overhead water tank. Of these two, the Underground tank also known as the Sump to which the municipal water pipe is connected, is the first to be constructed and should be built before digging for the foundation. This is because, being an underground tank, the excavation must be done before the rest of the foundation-excavation is started.  

So the next step after constructing the temporary shed and organising a watchman to stay in the shed (either by you or by your contractor) is to build the SUMP. Here are some simple guidelines in planning, locating and constructing the sump.


Close to the road: The Sump location should ideally be close to the road as the water lines run along the road. This way, a short connection to the sump from the water lines is sufficient and getting the right slope in the connection pipe is not a matter of concern. Being close to the road is also advantageous when you hire a water tanker to fill up your sump as it is easily accessible.

Under the porch:  Usually the Sump is planned below the car porch because there is ample space available here and it is usually near the road (read water lines). 

Vastu dictates the location of the Sump for some:  Some people prefer to locate it according to Vastu Shastra guidelines. This sometimes becomes a problem especially if they locate it in the back of the site in a tiny space between the house foundation and the compound wall, just because according to Vastu, that is the best position. 


The Sump should be located in the North-East corner.
The Sump should not touch the compound walls or the building walls.
The Sump should be near the corporation water lines, which means, that it should be near the main road.


Sump capacity: At the planning stage, you should decide the sump size. This size is directly proportional to the number of famillies/houses that you propose to have in the site and also depends on the water availability. If there is only one house then a 6000 litres to 8000 litres capacity sump is sufficient. If you are proposing more houses for the purpose of giving for rent, then consider an additional 4000-5000 litres per each extra house. A bigger sump is more expensive and takes up space but it is very useful especially when there is water scarcity.


Sump depth is usually taken to be 5' and not more as a man (cleaning the sump) should be able to stand in the sump with his head sticking out so that he does not feel suffocated.  

The sump size is calculated based on the sump capacity that you plan to have. As a rough guide, you should consider that 1 cubic feet of space can contain approximately 28 litres of water. So divide the proposed sump capacity with 28 to get the required sump volume in cubic feet, that you have to build.

The Sump length and breadth area: is calculated by dividing the sump volume by the depth, 5'. The figure that you get will dictate the length and breadth of the sump and the shape of the sump (rectangular or square).

For example: If you decide to have a sump of 6000 litres capacity, divide it by 28 to get 215 cubic feet. This is the desirable sump capacity. Then divide this figure by 5' depth to get 43 square feet. This is the desired sump area. Now you can decide the length and breadth of the sump according to the space available. It could be a rectangular sump of dimensions 4'X11' or 5'X8.5' or squarish with dimensions of 6.5'X6.5' etc.


Concrete is the preferred material: Ideally a concrete sump, cast at site is the best for an underground tank. This is because you need not worry about  water seepage and contamination of the stored water from the soil or underground water or sewage. This type of tank will last long and is fairly maintenance-free.

Bricks/blocks can also be used for building sumps: But this type of sump is at risk of leaking if not constructed properly. Use good quality bricks and rough plaster the outside and smooth plaster the inside of the sump. Make sure that a plastering  mesh is used during plastering to avoid cracks. The  sump plastering should be completed at one stretch to avoid cracks.

Ready made plastic tanks (sintex etc) are also avilable in different capacities. They have the advantage that they can be placed in the excavated hole in the site, in a day and there is no plastering or curing required. But I am not convinced about the long term use of water stored in plastic tanks. Moreover I am not sure if they can withstand the pressure of a car above them, if they are placed under the car porch.

Constructing the sump: Water pressure will be more on the internal corners of the tank. So avoid constructing sump/tank corners with 90 degrees like room walls. Instead, have rounded corners so that the water pressure is distributed over a larger area and also so that the corners are easier to clean and do not accumulate dirt.

After the sump has been constructed the next step is to Build the foundation . The steps to be followed in this important aspect of House Construction have been explained in detail here:

To know more about the different stages involved in the construction of a house, go to:

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